Implementing and improving Service Transition Tutorial

7.1 Implementing and Improving Service Transition

Learning Unit 7 is about implementing and improving Service transition. In this unit we will cover details about implementing service transition in a virtual and cloud environment.

7.2 Implementing and Improving Service Transition

Implementing Service Transition in a Greenfield situation, i.e.(pronounced as that is) a starting point where no Service Transition exists at all, would only be likely if a new service provider is being established. Therefore the task for most service provider organizations will be one of service improvement, a matter of assessing their current approach to the Service Transition processes and establishing the most effective and efficient improvements to make, prioritized according to the Business benefit that can be achieved. Considerable guidance on this topic is contained within the ITIL Continual Service Improvement (CSI) publication. However we will be discussing on the following points in this module: 1. Key activities in the introduction of service transition 2. An integrated approach to service transition processes 3. Implementing service transition in a virtual or cloud environment So, let us begin to discuss on the key activities in the next few slides.

7.3 Key Activities in the Introduction of ST

In our last slide we were introduced to Implementing and Improving Service Transition. This slide explains the Key activities in the introduction of ST. Let us see the key activities that will be covered in The Stage of Introducing ST. 1. Justifying ST 2. Designing ST 3. Introducing ST 4. Cultural change aspects 5. Risk and Value Let us look into each activity in detail.

7.4 Key Activities in the Introduction of ST

Let us start with the first part Justifying Service Transition of the Key activities in the introduction of ST. Service Transition is a key contributor to the service provider’s ability to deliver quality services to the Business. They are the delivery mechanism between the work of design, and the day-to-day care delivered by operations. However, the Service Transition processes are not always visible to the Customers, and this can make financial justification difficult. When setting up Service Transition, attention needs to be paid to ways of quantifying and measuring the benefits, typically as a balance between impact to the Business (negative and positive) and cost (in terms of money/staff resources) and in terms of what would be prevented by applying resource to any specific transition, such as diverting staff resources or delaying implementation. Gathering of evidence on the cost of current inadequate Service Transition is a valid and useful exercise, addressing such issues as: • Cost of failed changes • Extra cost of actual transition compared with budgeted costs • Errors found in live running that could have been detected during test transition. Moving ahead let us discuss the next activity in the next slide.

7.5 Key Activities in the Introduction of ST

Design of the Service Transition processes and how they fit within an organization are addressed throughout this publication. Useful factors to consider when designing Service Transition are described below. Applicable standards and policies phase will consider how agreed policies, standards and legislation will constrain the design of Service Transition. Considerations might include requirements for independence and visible accountability, which are commonly found controlling financial sector companies or within legislation such as Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX). Relationships factors will be Program and Project Management, Internal Development teams and Suppliers, Customers and Users, Other stakeholders Let us understand the first relationship which is Program and project management. Major transitions may be managed as programmes or projects, and Service Transition will deliver their role within the appropriate umbrella. Clear areas of demarcation and collaboration between programmes, projects and Service Transition will be required, and these need to be set out and agreed within the organization. To ensure appropriate transition is delivered, Service Transition staff will be involved in agreeing key programme and project milestones and timelines and ST should be set up to adopt this role. For example if a project is due to deliver a major release at the end of the month, ST must provide sufficient and timely resources to baseline and release the service package, at the agreed time and according to agreed quality levels. Second relationship is between Internal development teams and external suppliers. Communication channels will need to deal with defects, risks and issues discovered during the transition process, e.g. errors found during testing. Channels to both internal teams and external suppliers will need to be identified and maintained. Third relationship is with Customers or users. Communication with Customers and users is important to ensure that the transitioned service will remain focused on current Business requirements. The requirements at actual transition may evolve from the needs identified at design stage and communication channels with the customer will be the source of identifying those changes. Effective communication will benefit from an agreed strategic stakeholder contact map. In many circumstances this communication will be routed through service or account management or SLM, but these channels need to be identified and designed into the Service Transition processes also. Fourth relationship is with the other stakeholders. Other stakeholders will need to interface with ST, and these should be identified for all foreseeable circumstances, including in disaster recovery scenarios, and so liaison with ITSCM should be catered for. Other possible considerations might include: • IT, e.g. networks, IT security, Data management • Outside of IT but within the organization, e.g. facilities management, HR, physical security • Outside of the organization, e.g. landlords, police and regulatory bodies. Let us Move to our next sub-part, Budgets and Resources. The tasks required to deliver Service Transition should deliver an overall net benefit to the organization (or they should be revisited and revised) but nonetheless they do require funding, and the ST strategy should address the source and control of financial provision. This has two parts funding approach and resources. Funding approach is a mechanism for controlling the funding of the transition; infrastructure must be established, including: • Testing environments – In many organizations testing groups (including specialist testing aspects such as usability testing) are not under the direct control of transition. The relationship and authority to engage and allocate resources needs to be established, understood, maintained and managed. • SCM and Service Knowledge Management Systems – These will specifically require funding for the technology and skills essential to their effectiveness. The costing of transition objectives must be an integral part of design. This applies whatever the funding mechanism may be, and will involve serviced transition and Customers working with design. Typically the transition options will be coasted and a Business risk-based decision will be made. Resources: Similarly to the options and issues faced when considering funding, supply and control of other resources will need to be addressed within the ST strategy such as: • Staff, for example the allocation of project resource to transition activities • Central infrastructure • Central test Data, compromise between broadly applicable and re- usable against focused on individual services or features • Network resources for distribution of software, documentation and for testing of networked elements of services to be transitioned. Test environment management is a major item of expenditure and a significant resource element in many organizations. Under-funding and or under-resourcing here (either through lack of numbers or lack of requisite skills) can cause very expensive errors and problems in supporting live services, and have severe detrimental effects on an organization’s overall Business capability. Let us go ahead and learn more about next Stage of Introducing ST

7.6 Key Activities in the Introduction of ST

Experience shows that it is not advisable to attempt to retrofit a new transition’s practices onto projects under way; the benefits from the improved (and still unproven) practices are unlikely to outweigh the disruption caused by changing horses in midstream. If a particular transition is especially problematical, and it may be relevant to force a change of attitude, then an exception could be justified. One technique that has worked in organizations is capturing ‘in flight’ initiatives and bringing them into line with the new approach. This involves adjusting projects currently going through design or transition and adjusting their planning to fit in with the new procedures, typically at acceptance test/- or go live stage. For this to be successful, conversion strategies form ‘old transition routes’ to the new procedures should be considered, designed (and tested where possible) as part of the design responsibility. In the next slide let us check out the key activities from the cultural change aspects.

7.7 Key Activities in the Introduction of ST

Even formalization of mostly existing procedures will deliver cultural change; if Implementing Service Transition into an organization means installing formal processes that were not there before the cultural change is significant. Experience shows that, staff working in Change Management and even those who preach change among others, are potentially as resistant to change in their own areas as anyone else. While it is important to focus on gaining the support of Service Transition staff working directly in Service Transition, it is equally important that those supporting and being supported by Service Transition understand- why the changes to procedures are being made, the benefits to themselves and to the organization and their changed roles. The cultural change programme should address all stakeholders and should continue throughout and after transition, to ensure the changed attitudes are firmly embedded and not seen as a fashion accessory that can be dispensed with after the initial high profile has faded. Considerably more information on cultural change has been discussed in Change Management process. In the next slide we will discuss about risk and value considerations.

7.8 Key Activities in the Introduction of ST

Let us move to the fifth part Risk and Value consideration of the Key activities in the introduction of ST. As with all transitions, decisions around transitioning the transition service should not be made without adequate understanding of the expected risks and benefits. In this specific situation the risks might include: • Alienation of support staff • Excessive costs to the Business • Unacceptable delays to Business benefits. The risks and beneficial values require a baseline of the current situation, if the changes are to be measurable. Measures of the added value from Service Transition might include: • Customer and user satisfaction • Reduced incident and failure rates for transitioned services • Reduced cost of transitioning. This slide summarizes the first phase of Key activities in the introduction of ST. Let us go to the next phase of Introducing ST

7.9 An Integrated Approach to ST

In this slide let get introduced to the considerations that need to be focused for An integrated approach to ST. • A Process based Approach with clear Process Definitions • Strategic Customer and Organizational Goals • Holistic View of Service Transition • Business Outlook • Clear and Descriptive SDP • Roles and Responsibilities • Integrated Risk Management Moving ahead let us understand implementing ST in a virtual or cloud environment.

7.10 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

Before moving onto the key concepts of Implementing Service Transition in a virtual or cloud environment, let us understand some fundamentals. Organizations that are implementing virtualization or cloud must consider impact on the design, implementation and operation of service transition in a very dynamic environment which requires rapid provisioning of new virtual servers or migration of virtual server between hosts. Virtualization or cloud may calls for creation of new CI types, release models, change models and standard changes. The tools, activities, authorities, roles and responsibilities required for creating and managing the cloud environment is completely different from those managing physical servers. Change management and release and deployment management processes must be designed to work seamlessly across both physical and virtual serves and CMS must be able to reflect the complexity of the relationships. Organization that moves its services from traditional data center to cloud must consider simplification of SACM. To have an effective virtual or cloud environment automation is the solution. Some of the examples are : • Creation, deployment and retirement of virtual servers. • Adding physical resources to provide greater capacity to an existing virtual server • Moving a virtual server from a physical server that requires maintenance to a different physical server. Implementation of virtual or cloud environment is not an easy job. Organization should understand challenges and opportunities In the next slide, let’s discuss the key concepts of virtualization.

7.11 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

In our last slide we were introduced to the considerations In An integrated approach to ST. In this slide we will understand vitualization. • IT Virtualization is the abstraction of IT resources in a way that it masks the physical nature and boundaries of those resources from the resource users. • Virtualization is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a storage device or network resources. For an example on implementing STin a virtual environment, move to the next slide.

7.12 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

Here is the sample OS of virtualization. The pictorial representation shows you the before and after snapshot of implementing Service Transition in the virtual environment. If you observe the picture, you will notice that the after state looks more organized by eliminating the clumsiness in operating the service. Now let us discuss about implementing ST in an cloud environment. So what is this cloud environment? Let’s look into it in the next slide.

7.13 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

Let us understand what is cloud computing? Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. There are various Cloud Types such a: • Private Cloud • Public Cloud • Community Cloud • Hybrid Cloud Let us now move on to discuss about the characteristics of a cloud.

7.14 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

As we now know the meaning of cloud and types of clouds, let us look at the cloud characteristics; A cloud is: Service Based: The majority of businesses it prefers are Business service centered models. In a scenario where you do not have to set up the system and network administration, Business side tasks become easier. Scalable and Elastic: It is important for cloud computing services to be easily scalable if any additional enhancements are needed. If you require extra bandwidth or Data storage capacity, this can be easily scaled up without any problem. This cuts down extra project costs that would have gone towards procuring and installing the required infrastructure. Shared: These resources can be easily shared among many users without impacting performance negatively. This characteristic makes it easy for both service provider and consumer to utilize efficiency better. Metered by Use: As a Business owner, cutting down costs at every opportunity can improve profitability significantly. It is based on consumers paying for services and resources that they have used. Uses Internet technologies for access. You can easily access cloud computing services using standard Internet protocol technologies. This increases accessibility without adding unnecessary infrastructure expenses. There are three types of Cloud Offerings: – Software as a Service – SaaS (pronounced as one word) : In this model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. The cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform on which the application is running. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers simplifying maintenance and support. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. This can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is transparent to the cloud user who sees only a single access point. Platform as a Service – PaaS(pronounced as one word): In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform and or solution stack typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PaaS offers, the underlying compute and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand such that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. Infrastructure as a Service – IaaS(pronounced as one word): In this most basic cloud service model, cloud providers offer computers – as physical or more often as virtual machines –, raw (block) storage, firewalls, load balancers, and networks. IaaS providers supply these resources on demand from their large pools installed in Data centers. Local area networks including IP addresses are part of the offer. For the wide area connectivity, the Internet can be used or - in carrier clouds - dedicated virtual private networks can be configured. To deploy their applications, cloud users then install operating system images on the machines as well as their application software. In this model, it is the cloud user who is responsible for patching and maintaining the operating systems and application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis, that is, cost will reflect the amount of resources allocated and consumed. As we have understanding about cloud, type of clouds, characteristics of cloud and cloud offerings, let us now understand the scope of Service Transition in cloud environment.

7.15 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

Service Transition in cloud environment scope includes: • Existing ‘On Premise' application is transferred to a Public Cloud in an IaaS or PaaS model • Existing Support Staff will continue to Support the application after it is moved to Cloud • There will be reduction in Support from Infrastructure point of view • Application Support will continue to be done by existing support staff • There will be a External Cloud Consultant who will be part of the transition and provide knowledge transfer to the existing support staff • Existing Support Staff will continue with Application maintenance after the successful transition In the next slide let us look at delivering cloud solution.

7.16 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

In our last slide we discussed the Concept of Service Transition in Cloud Environments. This slide explains the concept of Delivering a Cloud Solution. We do not have to understand each of them in detail. This is just for overview. Therefore, let us look at the designing activities and they are: • Design the Cloud • Deliver the Requirements • Operate and Optimize • Measure Improve and Comply In the next slide let us look at the steps for service transition to a cloud environment.

7.17 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

The service transition to a cloud environment follows the same PDCA (Plan-do-check-act) model. Thus we do not have to understand each of them in detail. Let’s just get an overview of these steps and they are: • Planning transition • Implementation • Verification of transition • Sign Off Or Closure Moving ahead we will discuss about the best practices in transition to a cloud environment.

7.18 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

In our last slide we discussed the Concept of Service Transition to a Cloud Environment. This slide explains the best practices in transition to cloud. These best practices are: • Moving to cloud will be big paradigm shift for business users, support staff and senior management. Hence the impact should be minimized and there should not be a sudden big bang change. • Pilot run with parallel activities between ‘On Premise' and Cloud will be useful. • Change any application change during the movement to Cloud must be avoided. • Transition is must be made in step by step with Change Evaluation at every step. • Get the buy-in from all the stake holders, so that it is sponsored with the top management. So far we discussed about service transition in virtual and cloud environment. Now let us discuss about the benefits of virtualization and cloud computing in the next few slides.

7.19 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

Firstly, let us begin with the benefits of virtualization and they are: • Virtual machines can be used to consolidate the workloads of several underutilized servers to fewer machines, perhaps a single machine (server consolidation). Related benefits (perceived or real, but often cited by vendors) are savings on hardware, environmental costs, management, and administration of the server infrastructure. • Virtual machines can be used to provide secure, isolated sandboxes for running untrusted applications. You could even create such an execution environment dynamically - on the fly - as you download something from the Internet and run it. You can think of creative schemes, such as those involving address obfuscation. Virtualization is an important concept in building secure computing platforms. • Virtual machines can be used to run multiple operating systems simultaneously: different versions, or even entirely different systems, which can be on hot standby. Some such systems may be hard or impossible to run on newer real hardware. Let’s continue this in the next slide.

7.20 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

In continuation to our last slide this slide explains the Benefits of Virtualization. These are: • Virtual machines can isolate what they run, so they provide fault and error containment. You can inject faults proactively into software to study its subsequent behavior. • Virtual machines make software easier to migrate, thus aiding application and system mobility. • You can treat application suites as appliances by "packaging" and running each in a virtual machine. • Virtual machines are great tools for research, testing and academic experiments. Since they provide isolation, they are safer to work with. They capture the entire state of a running system: you can save the state, examine it, modify it, reload it, and so on. The state also provides an idea of the workload being run. • Virtual machines can be used to create arbitrary test scenarios, and can lead to some very imaginative, effective quality assurance. • Virtualization can make tasks such as system migration, backup, and recovery easier and more manageable. Let usnow proceed to look at the benefits of cloud computing.

7.21 Implementing Service Transition in a Virtual or Cloud Environment

The benefits of cloud computing are: • Reduced Cost: Cloud technology is paid incrementally, saving organizations money. • Increased Storage: Organizations can store more Data than on private computer systems. • Highly Automated: No longer do IT personnel need to worry about keeping software up to date. • Flexibility: Cloud computing offers much more flexibility than past computing methods. • More Mobility: Employees can access information wherever they are, rather than having to remain at their desks. • Allows IT to Shift Focus: No longer having to worry about constant server updates and other computing issues, government organizations will be free to concentrate on innovation. This summarizes the module 7. Let us now move on to the next module on challenges, risks and critical success factors in Service transition.

7.22 Learning Unit 7 Summary

With this we have come to the end of learning unit 7, let us recap: • The stages relating to introduction of Service Transition are providing a justification for the implementation, designing the Service Transition components, and understanding the impact on existing projects as well as cultural change aspects. • The processes involved in the Service Transition stage are not independent of each other and hence an integrated approach should be adopted. • Cloud computing is becoming more popular now-a-days and IT service management best practices can be adopted in these services as well. However a thorough analysis must be performed to understand the impact of moving to virtualization or cloud architectures on the design, implementation and operation of Service Transition.

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  • PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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